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Assisted Reproductive Technology


A Couple having regular sex, without adopting any contraceptive methods regularly for a period of 1 year and does not conceive is interpreted as infertile.

Infertility Factors

Male Factors 40 %
Female Factors 40 %
Common Factors 10 %
Unknown Factors 10 %

Reasons For Female Infertility

  • PCOS
  • Fibroid
  • Tubal Blockage
  • Uterine anomalies
  • Ovulation Disorders
  • Thyroid
  • Obesity
  • Hormone Imbalance
  • Endometrial Factors
  • Adhesions
  • Abnormal Cervical Mucus
  • Absent or under developed Uterus ( Mayor Rokitansky Kuster Hauser Syndrome)
  • Stress
  • Infection
  • Sexually Transmitted Disease
  • AIDS
  • Alcohol
  • Drug Addiction
  • Smoking etc.

Tests Carried out for Women to diagnose Infertility

  • Blood Tests to analyze hormonal level
  • Ovarian Reserve Test
  • Genetic Test
  • Thyroid Function Test
  • Chlamydia Test
  • Pelvic Ultrasound


  • Fertility Improvement Drugs
  • Surgical Procedures ( Fertility Enhancement Surgeries)
  • Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI)
  • In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
  • Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
  • Donor Programme
  • Assisted Hatching
  • Surrogacy
  • Cryo Preservation
  • Pre Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
  • Pre Implantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
  • Blastocyst
  • Assisted Hatching / Laser Hatching
  • Embryoscope
  • Embryoglue
  • Endometrial Receptivity Array
  • Stem Cell Therapy
  • Endocrinology

Male Infertility

  • Low Sperm Count (Azoosspermia, Oligospermia)
  • Low Sperm Motility (Azthenozoospermia)
  • Abnormal Sperm (Teratozoospermia)

Reasons for Male Infertility

  • Genetic Factors
  • Hormonal Imbalance
  • Mumps during Puberty
  • Hypospadias
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Testicular Infection
  • Overheated Testicles
  • Ejaculation Disorders
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Anemia
  • Diabetes
  • Drug Addiction
  • Alcohol Addiction
  • smoking
  • Obesity
  • Mental Stress
  • Age
  • Overweight
  • Excessive use of Steroids
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Varicocele
  • Blockage of Ejaculatory Duct

Tests Carried out for Men to Diagnose Infertility

  • Blood Tests to analyze Hormonal Level
  • Semen Analysis
  • Ultrasound for finding out ejaculatory duct blockage
  • Chlamydia test
  • DNA Fragmentation Analysis (DFA)


  • Hormonal medicines
  • Lifestyle Improvement
  • Food Habbits
  • Surgery
  • Testicular mapping for Azoospermia

Intrauterine Insemination

Intra Uterine Insemination is inseminating the uterus with thin catheter , after washing the semen in the laboratory . The advantages of IUI is it maximizes entry of sperm quantity inside the fallopian tube

IUI is recommended in following occasions

  • In case of unexplained Infertility
  • In case of cervical abnormalities that includes cervical mucus
  • In case of Cervical scar due to previous surgery that hinders the sperm movement.
  • Ejaculation dysfunction

However IUI is not useful where the

  • Women whose fallopian tube is severely affected
  • Women who has history of severe pelvic inflammation
  • Women with moderate to severe endometriosis
  • The success rate is 15 % to 20 % only.

Occasions When IVF Treatment Recommended

  • Damaged Fallopian Tube
  • Endometrial factors which is not responding to IUI
  • Severe male factor where there is low Sperm Count or Motility ICSI is recommended
  • Unexplained infertility where other modalities does not succeed


Total Approximately – 5 to 6 Weeks

Balanced Diet suggested for IVF Patients

  • Plenty of fruit and Vegetables
  • Complex Carbohydrates – whole grains like brown rice, oats and wholemeal bread
  • Organic Food
  • More fibrous food
  • Fish & Eggs
  • High Protein

Foods to be avoided

  • Refined Carbohydrates
  • Refined Sugar
  • Fast Food ( Saturated Fat)
  • Cheese
  • Sea Food
  • Raw Eggs
  • Preserved Food & Additives
  • Direct Sugar or Food rich in Sugar
  • Coffee/ Tea
  • Alcohol

Minerals & Vitamins highly Essential

  • Vitamin – A (Betacarotene) found mostly in Carrots, Tomatoes, Cabbage, Pumpkin, Egg, Parsley & broccoli for Embryo Development
  • Vitamin B6 - useful for reproduction found in Bananas, Eggs, Peanuts, Mushrooms, Soya Beans, Seaweeds, Salmon Fish.
  • Vitamin B12 – Found in Eggs & Seeweeds
  • Vitamin B1, 2 & 5 – Found in Green Vegetables, Brown Rice, Soya Bean and Green Vegetable leafy Vegetables
  • Folic Acid useful in preconception period found in Oranges, Grapes, Straberry, Banana & whole meal bread. Recommended as a supplement.
  • Vitamin C – useful in during infertility treatment, found mostly in Citrus Fruits, Blue Berries, Mangoes, Grape Fruit etc.
  • Vitamin E – useful in during infertility treatment, found mostly in Vetable Oil, Green Leafy Vegetables, Soya Beans, Lettuce, unrefined cereals etc
  • Calcium is very useful mineral during conception for babies bone & teeth found mostly in spinach, almonds, papayas, leafy green vegetables, water melon and whole grain etc.
  • Zinc – This mineral is useful for reproductive hormones found mostly in Fish, Eggs, Dry Fruits, mushroom, beetroots, peas, beans etc.
  • Magnesium equally useful for child bones & teeth found mostly in Dairy products, bananas, Sunflower Oil, eggs etc.
  • Selenium found mostly in garlic, carrots, mushrooms, broccoli etc.

Precautions to be observed during IVF treatment

  • Strictly avoid Long Travel 2-4 hours at a stretch
  • Strictly avoid Strenuous Exercise
  • Strictly avoid lifting of heavy items
  • Strictly avoid Alcohol
  • Strictly no smoking
  • Strictly to avoid recreational drugs
  • Strictly to avoid carbonated drinks
  • Minimise Medications
  • Avoid exposed to radiations & heat
  • Avoid Climbing Stair Case
  • Avoid bending sharply which gives more pressure on lower abdoment
  • To have proper Sleep
  • If advised bed rest follow strictly
  • No Intercourse after ET till pregnancy is confirmed

Test Tube Baby (IVF/ICSI/IMSI)

Conventional IVF

IVF is an acronym for in vitro fertilization ( in vitro meaning in glass ). Simply put IVF is adding a man s sperm to his female partners eggs in the laboratory to produce embryos. In vitro fertilization is an option for many couples who cannot conceive through conventional therapies. These embryos are put back in to the female partner s uterus (womb) after 3 to 5 days of being in the incubator hopefully they will grow in to a baby. The reason of IVF is done include - poor sperm quality and or quality obstructions between the egg and the sperms , ovulation problems and the sperm egg interaction problems. these problems can prevent couples having a baby naturally and IVF helps to solve this, conventional IVF success rate is about 50% to 60%.


Surgical Sperm Aspiration (PESA/TESA)

Surgical sperm retrieval is a treatment recommended for men with Azoospermia condition when there is blockage of the tube for sperm passage or absence of sperm in ejaculation. There are two methods; the PESA and the TESA. The PESA, (percutaneous epidydimal sperm aspiration), is a method where sperm is collected from the epididymis inside the scrotum using a syringe and fine needle. TESA, (testicular sperm aspiration), is a method where sperm is retrieved directly from the testicles.

  • Donor Programme of Gametes and Embryos
  • Cryo Preservation of Gametes and Embryos
  • Surrogacy

    Surrogacy via a gestational carrier is an option when a patient s medical condition prevents a safe pregnancy, when a patient has ovaries but no uterus due to congenital absence or previous surgical removal and where a patient has no ovaries and is also unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.

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